Where did we come from? Did we evolve from bacteria or created by God? There have been numerous debates about this topic, but no definite answer has been reached yet. However, more people believe evolution than creation because the former was scientifically better established than the latter.
Strictly speaking, all evidences evolutionlists suggest for evolution are microevolution (evolution within the species) and no confirming single evidence exists for macroevolution (evolution between different species; note that Tiktaalik can not be used as an evidence of macroevolution (fish to amphibians) since the first tetrapods appeared long before the Tiktaalik). In this sense, microevolution should be called adaptation God has embedded in DNA of every creatures. Furthermore, as discussed in the previous section, they can not explain how the first life appeared on earth. In this section, we will extend our discussion from earth to universe.
Fig. 1 Macroevolution and Microevolution
If we assume that evolution and creation debate as a marathon race, we will be in a situation of watching the race in the beginning or middle of the race. In such a case, we can't tell who's going to win. The only way to tell who's the winner is to watch the race at the finish line. Just like this, is there any way to watch the race of the creation and evolution at the finish line?
Fig. 2 Marathon race. We don’t know who’s going to win at the start or middle of the race.
This doesn’t seem to be an easy task, but if we think about this problem under the night sky, the twinkling stars might tell us a way to solve it. Earth is one of the eight planets orbiting around the sun, and the sun itself is just one of the 200 billion stars in our Galaxy. Suppose each star has one earth-like planet, then there will be 200 billion planets in our Galaxy alone.
So, if the evolution is correct, we are not special but just one of the numerous intelligent species living on earth-like planets in the universe. This reasoning gives us a powerful tool to tell who's going to win in the race of creation and evolution, namely if there exist numerous aliens in the universe, the evolution will be the winner.
Fig. 3 Do Aliens exist?
Then, how many aliens exist in the universe? The search for extraterrestrial intelligence SETI) was first started in the early 1960 by Cornell University astronomer Dr. Drake using radio telescopes in Green Bank, West Virginia. This SETI project was known as 'Project Ozma'. Subsequently, many SETI projects such as Project Cyclops, Project Ozma II, Project Phoenix, SERENDIP, Seti@Home, and Optical SETI have been undertaken by various universities and institutions.
Fig. 4 - Green Bank 26m radio telescope used for Project Ozma (top) and world's largest Arecibo radio telescope used for Project SERENDIP (bottom)
Throughout these SETI projects, about 5,000 nearby solar-type stars have been searched to detect signals from aliens, but none has been detected. Does this mean there exist no aliens out there? Then, what about UFO? Isn’t it the evidence of aliens?
According to the UFO researches conducted by various agencies and institutions, about 80% - 90% of the UFOs have been identified as astronomical phenomena, airplanes, balloons, optical illusions, birds, and clouds. The rest of 10%-20% of the UFOs are unidentified. Do aliens visit earth on board these unidentified UFOs and can this be the evidence of their existence? It could be, but let's come back to this question later.
Fig. 5 UFO - Alien's Vehicle?
When Dr. Drake started Project Ozma, he devised an equation called Drake equation to estimate the number of technologically advanced alien civilizations in our Galaxy. The equation is a product of the average star formation rate per year in our Galaxy, the fraction of those stars that have planets, the number of planets per star that can potentially support life, fraction of those habitable planets on which life actually arises, fraction of those life forms that evolve into intelligent species, fraction of those species that develop adequate technology and releases detectable signs of their existence into space, and lifetime of that technologically advanced civilization. If we enter appropriate values for each term, the number of technologically advanced alien civilizations in our Galaxy becomes about 2. Two alien civilizations in a galaxy sounds a small number, but it will become 200 billions if we the count the total number of technologically advanced alien civilizations in the entire universe (2 times 100 billion galaxies).
The Drake equation is based on the evolution since it assumes that life can be originated on habitable planets and those life can be evolved into intelligent species. Let's assume the evolution is correct, then some of the alien civilizations could have evolved long times ahead of us and some others just started their evolution in a form of primitive bacteria. If we know history of the universe, then we can roughly estimate how many technologically advanced civilizations out there since their civilization will depends on when the first galaxy and planets are formed. The Lambda-CDM model of the big bang cosmology suggests the age of the universe is about 13.7 billion years old. When the universe was about 300,000 years old, it went through a recombination epoch during which the hydrogen and helium atoms were formed and become the building blocks of stars and galaxies we currently observe. Recent observations tell us that the first galaxy was formed about 13.2 billion years ago.
If the evolution is correct, the alien civilizations could have evolved as early as 13.2 billion years ago in such galaxy. If we assume the alien civilizations appeared continuously 13.2 billion years ago to the present, the first civilization evolved 9.2 billion years earlier than us since we evolved 4.0 billion years. The fraction of alien civilizations that evolved earlier than us is about 70% (9.2/13.2) of which 90% and 99% of them have been evolved from 920 million years and 92 million years earlier than us respectively. Let’s take a very conservative estimate by assuming not just 99% but only 1% of them was evolved 92 million years earlier than us. Then the total number of such a civilization in the universe will be 2 billions (1% of 200 billions).
If they started to evolve 92 million years earlier than us, how far technologically advanced their civilization is? Our civilization has been advanced steadily from prehistoric time but during the last two centuries we have achieved a significant advancement in civilization. If we keep the same pace to the next 132 million years, our civilization will be advanced beyond our imagination. If we are living in such an advanced civilization, how do we do space travel?
Fig. 6 Picture of Nam-San in Seoul taken in 1904 (top left) and in 2004 (top right). Artist's rendition of the Earth in near future (bottom).
If we think about the fastest way for space travel, most of us will imagine fast spaceships. The natural outcome of this concept is an UFO and leads us to think that if aliens would visit to Earth, they might come abroad on UFO. However, we have to realize that the size of the universe is unimaginably large and can’t be traveled with spaceship. For example, it will take about 4.3 years to the nearest star even if you travel at the speed of light, and it will take about 2.5 million years with the speed of light to the nearest galaxy Andromeda. So, it’s virtually impossible to do space travel by riding a spaceship simply because it takes unrealistically long time. Then, what kind of methods could be used for the future space travel?
Fig. 7 Andromeda, the nearest galaxy from us. It will take 2.5 million years if we travel at the speed of light.
In 1935, Einstein and Rosen discovered an existence of wormhole through which any two points in the universe can be connected instantly. However, the wormhole itself is unstable and it will pinch off instantly as soon as it forms and preventing even light from passing it through. Another problem is that anything passing through the wormhole will be squashed completely into sub-atomic level.
The possible solution to circumvent this problem is to produce a database of someone’s body in every detail such as height, weight, DNA structure, and even memories and send these information through the wormhole to the place where he wants to go and duplicate the same person using body duplicating machine. To apply this method, we need to have exotic material that have 'negative energy' to make the wormhole to stay open. In addition, we have to have a preexisting body duplicating machine at the destination planet, which is another challenging task to resolve.
Fig. 8 Wormhole.
Then, is there any other practical way for the space travel? The 'teleportation' through hyper-space as seen on TV series Star Trek could be the answer. This is not just sending information of our body and duplicating it, but sending the whole body to other place in the universe through hyper-space. In the late 1990, scientists have shown that information of the quantum or atom can be copied to a place a few millimeters away. Recent experiment showed that the information of the atoms can be copied to a place about 5 meters away by 'quantum entanglement' method. If this method of transporting information is developed for the next thousands or ten thousands years, we will eventually find a way to transport our whole body to any place in the universe. So, for the civilization evolved 92 million years earlier than us should have perfected this technology and it will be a piece of cake for them to travel any place in the universe just as we visit to our next door.
Fig 9. Teleportation shown in Star Trek
If such a space travel is common to advanced civilizations, then how many aliens can actually visiting us? The answer of this question depends on the total population in such civilization. To simplify the problem, let’s assume that they are similar to us and the average population of each civilization is about 1 billions (which is about 1/6 of Earthian(=6 billions)). Then, the total number of aliens who have been evolved 92 million years earlier than us and who have teleportation technology to visit Earth is 2 quintillions.
Of course, we don’t expect all of them will visit us. If we assume that only 1% of them can visit, then the total number of aliens who can visit to Earth is 20 quadrillions. If they visit us daily, monthly, or yearly, then we will have 20 quadrillions, 670 trillions, or 55 trillions alien visitors, respectively in each day. In such a case, we ought to see an enormous number of aliens on Earth. But, so far, we haven’t seen any of the aliens visiting Earth. Then, how can we interpret this result?
There will be two possible answers for this: i) there exist numerous number of aliens out there, but simply they don’t have any interest to visit us, or, ii) the assumption of evolution in Drake’s equation is simply wrong and there’s no alien civilization in the universe. The first answer doesn’t seem to be reasonable because the space exploration and SETI will be the most focused science for the advanced civilizations and if they found us, they will contact us in every ways. Suppose we found aliens in the nearby planet, then it will be the most sensational news on earth and we will make every effort to contact or visit them. Likewise, most of the 200 quadrillions aliens will have very much interested to visit us, but we don't see any of them.
So, the answer is the second one; evolution is simply wrong and we are not evolved from bacteria but created by God. This is the result of the evolution and creation race seen from the finish line!