Evolution or Adaptation?

Evolutionists use three concepts to explain evolution mechanisms: i) natural selection, ii) genetic drift, and iii) mutation. Natural Selection leads to an evolutionary change when some individuals with certain traits in a population have a higher survival and reproductive rate than others and pass on these inheritable genetic features to their offspring. It was first introduced by Darwin after observing a variation of Galapagos finches (Figure 5 below). Natural Selection is the leading mechanism for supporting the evolutionism.

In 2015, a week after Darwin’s 206th birthday, a team of researches published the result of genetic analysis of 15 species of Galapagos finches in the journal Nature. According to the paper, the Galapagos finches with various beaks were branched out from a common ancestor that lived about 2 million years ago. What they found is that a variation of gene named ALX1 contributed most for the variation of the beaks in finches.

figure 5. Variation of beak in Galapagos finches

Mutation can be defined as a change in the DNA sequence within a gene or chromosome of a living organism. In term of fitness, mutations in living organisms occur in three forms: neutral, harmful, or beneficial mutation. Figure 6 shows the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of mutations in vesicular stomatitis virus. Out of all mutations, 39.6% were lethal (fitness=0), 31.2% (0<fitness<1) were non-lethal deleterious, and 27.1% were neutral (fitness=1).

Figure 6. Distribution of fitness effects (DFE) in mutations

The natural selection, genetic drift, and mutation cause microevolution (evolution within the same species). The evolutionists claim that an accumulation of microevolutions leads to macroevolution (evolution from one species to another one). However, no evidence of macroevolution was found (note here that ring species is not an evidence of macroevolution). Darwin also realized this and described the problems of his evolution theory in Chapter 6 of the Origin of Species. One of the difficulties he stated is that "why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.". This is so called Darwin's dilemma and clearly states none existence of macroevolution.

Figure 7. Milankovitch cycle

If there exists no evidence of macroevolution, microevolution should not be called evolution but adaptation for the following reason. The Earth's rotation axis changes in a period of 25,400 years. As a result of the precession, Earth's equatorial line changes: tropical region can become subtropical region and vice-versa. In addition to the precession, change of axial tilt and eccentricity causes global climate change on Earth about 100,000 year cycle. This cycle is called 'Milankovitch cycle'. Climate change caused by Milankovitch cycle induces environmental change.

God gave a special ability for all creatures to adapt slowly changing environment. This ability was hidden in the DNA and when needed, gene expressions are properly controlled to adapt the varying environment. Otherwise, significant fraction of the living creatures may have already extincted long times ago on the surface of Earth.

Next Figure illustrates one example of how gene expression works if the environment changes. If human skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, tumor suppressor gene called P53 is activated. The activated P53 gene induces gene expression of melanin-generating gene called POMC. The POMC gene promotes to generate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The ACTH induces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and in turn, MSH synthesize melanin with the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R).

Figure 8. Gene expression of melanin by adapting changing environment

The process of generating melanin in response of the UV radiation is an example of a short term response of gene expression of DNAs, but most of the gene expression with respect to the changing environment is a long term response. Compared to other ethnic groups, the Eskimos have large fat content on their cheek, which is the only exposed area in a cold weather. It is another example of gene expression with respect to changing environment. Variation of beak in Galapagos finches is a form of ALX1 gene expression to adapt changing environment for survival and should be called adaptation, not evolution. In fact, all microevolutions evolutionists claim as an evidence of evolution should be called adaptation since microevolution never leads to macroevolution.